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The Theory of Absolutes © 2009
by: Thomas Lee Abshier, ND
A philosophical, theological, and science-based exploration of physics and life
To discover God’s principles and Laws underlying the phenomena of:
Particles & Fields, Classical & Quantum Mechanics, Relativity;
the fundamental nature of Mass, Energy, Space,  and Time;
and the logic and purpose motivating the drama of Body, Soul, & Spirit
Note:
Pre-Publication Edition: Contains Duplication, Errata, Incompletely Developed Concepts, and Discarded Hypotheses

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Neutron Internal Structure

By: Thomas Lee Abshier, ND

 

In the Theory, we postulate that the neutron is composed of 5 electrons and 5 positrons.  (The actual number could be more or less.  The actual number is not crucial to validating the Theory.  The initial estimate of 10 total electron-positrons was made because the proton is made of 3 quarks, which could be made of 3 electrons and positrons.  So, 3x3 = 4 electrons and 5 positrons are the components of the proton.  When a sufficiently energetic electron collides with a proton, it becomes a neutron.  Thus, the 9 plus 1, creates the 5 electron and 5 positron composition of the neutron.)  

Experimental evidence shows that the neutron has a neutral charge.  This fact is consistent with the theoretical postulate that the neutron is composed of an equal number of electrons and positrons.  

But, even though the neutron no net charge, it has a magnetic moment.  But, a comparison of the magnitude of the magnetic moment of the neutron with the magnetic moment of the proton and electron reveals that the neutron’s magnetic moment is probably due to charge separation and asymmetries.  The comparative magnetic moments of the 3 major subatomic particles are as follows:  

  1. -928.476 362(37) x 10-26 J T-1 Electron Magnetic moment
  2. 1.410 606 633(58) x 10-26 J T-1 Proton Magnetic Moment
  3. -0.966 236 40(23) x 10-26 J T-1 Neutron Magnetic Moment

 

Clearly the magnetic moment of the electron is much greater than the proton or the neutron’s magnetic moment.  This supports the concept that the structure of the proton, which is composed of electrons and positrons, is organized in such a way so as to produce a magnetic field that cancels out, or internally captures, the magnetic fields of the constituent particles so as to not allow a significant net external magnetic moment.

In a similar way, the addition of an extra electron to the proton will produce an even more neutralized magnetic structure (than the proton) since the electron to positron ratio is 1:1.  The reduction in net magnetic moment, and the change in polarity, is easily rationalized based on symmetry and the increase in negative charge due to the addition of an electron.

Conventional physics has no good explanation from a structural level as to why there is a magnetic field associated with the neutron, since it is a neutral (charge-free) particle.  But, in the Theory, we have postulated a neutron that is composed of numerous moving charges, probably in a very tight orbital relationship with each other.  And while in a perfect dyad, with perfect superimposition, the electron positron would probably perfectly cancel out their magnetic moment.  But, in a more complex structure, with distances between the various constituent electrons and positrons, and a somewhat regular, but periodic electron-positron mosaic, the cancellation will necessarily be imperfect, and a residual magnetic moment will remain, as we see in the case of the charge-neutral neutron.  

The next question that we must confront is the issue of the neutron’s decays into a proton with the ejection of an electron and neutrino.  This particular decay, and the proposed structure of the neutron, may help give us some clues about the origin and nature of the neutrino.  

We shall examine the spectrum of neutrino energy content during the decay of the neutron to give us clues about the nature of the relationship between the neutrino and the neutron.  

938.2723 + .510999 = 938.78329 (sum of electron & Proton mass)

939.5656 – 938.78329 = .7823 MeV (Difference between Neutron mass and the total mass of the proton and electron)

Thus, .7823 MeV is the maximum energy available to the neutrino (i.e. more energy is available to it if the electron leaves with less energy).  Thus, the neutrino is not defined by its energy content, but rather the fact that it has been formed by the decay of the nucleus.  

Conventional physics argues that the neutrino is a unique particle, another elementary particle having its own unique rules.  But, in the Theory, we shall postulate that the neutrino is simply an electromagnetic wave with ħ/2 angular momentum.   

We shall continue looking for clues about the nature of the neutrino by examining how it may have formed, and the place it may have inside the neutron.  When the neutron is formed, a proton captured a high velocity electron.  We shall hypothesize that the method by which the neutron captured the electron was by the binding of the incoming electron with the positron at the center of the proton.  IT therefore effectively converted the central positron to a rotating, mutually orbiting, electron-positron pair.  It is possibly through this orbital pair that the neutron is able to present itself as a fermion, with spin equal to the Fermion’s odd integer multiple of ħ/2.  

Another interesting phenomenon about neutrons is that it cannot remain in a stable configuration for and extended period without being associated with a proton.  An isolated neutron has a half life of about 10.3 minutes, meaning that there is a 50% probability that it will decay into a proton, electron, and a neutrino during that first 10.3 minutes.  In the decay, the neutron loses the orbiting electron and the ħ/2 angular momentum carried by the electron-positron orbiting pair at the center of the neutron.  That angular momentum is lost to the space surrounding the neutron, and radiates out as an EM wave packet, as an ħ/2 photon, which is recognized as a neutrino.

The ħ/2 angular momentum of the neutrino gives it a small capture cross-section.  The neutrino cannot resonate with the orbital electrons since they carry only orbital energies with integer multiples of ħ.  Thus, the neutrino can only be captured by an energetic system that resonates at odd integer multiples of ħ/2.  

In the Theory, we have hypothesized that the neutron is composed of 5 electrons and 5 positrons.  But, it was the capture of an electron that produced the conversion of the proton to a neutron.  Thus, hypothetically the central positron of the proton, and the captured electron, could have formed a mutually orbiting electron-positron pair.  The angular momentum of the pair could be an odd multiple of ħ/2, and the binding energy and angular momentum of orbiting pair could be the energy reservoir of the neutrino.  This assembly could satisfy the physical criteria of the neutron, i.e. its structure, charge, spin, formation dynamics, and its decay processes.  

The structure hypothesized is consistent with the formation of a neutron with a spin with an odd integer multiple of ħ/2, and neutral electrical charge.  It is consistent with absorption of an electron by a proton forms a neutron, and when the neutron decays it ejects an electron at a variety of speeds.  This variable quanta of energy carried by the electron after neutron beta decay (loss of the electron) was the cue that an additional particle or wave was carrying off a portion of the energy of decay.  

Thus, the physicists have constructed the Sudbury Neutron Observatory, to be able to detect the electron neutrino, ì neutrino, and the tau neutrino.  When captured, the electron neutrino will produce a shower of electrons.  The Sudbury Neutron Observatory is an 18 meter diameter geodesic sphere filled with deuterium, at a depth of 2 miles in a nickel mine.  (Note: deuterium is hydrogen with an extra neutron – one proton and one neutron).  The reason they used deuterium is because it has a stable nucleus that will not be undergoing a lot of decay that could cause confusing signals picked up by the detectors.  Deuterium combined with oxygen and hydrogen is essentially water, it is non toxic, and easy to handle.)  (Note: other liquids such as cleaning solvent, which is rich in hydrogen and made with deuterium, have been used as the medium to detect neutrino capture.)

The electron neutrino (i.e. the neutrino produced by the decay of a neutron into a proton, electron, and neutrino) is detected by an array of 9500 photomultiplier tubes in the Sudbury Ontario Observatory.  The tubes are detectors, and the electron neutrino produces a characteristic shower of electrons that indicates the presence of an electron neutrino, or ì neutrino, or tau neutrino.   

Inside the Sudbury Neutron Observatory are 9,500 photomultiplier tubes which surround the heavy water.  If a neutrino is captured, then the neutron in the deuterium converts into a proton and electron.  

  

Deuterium is heavy hydrogen, which has only a proton and a neutron in its atomic nucleus.  In the neutrino detector, the electron neutrino collides with the neutron in the deuterium nucleus and stimulates a type of beta decay (i.e. a neutron emitting a proton and electron minus a neutrino).  Thus, it appears that the collision between the neutrino and the neutron adds an additional spin to the neutron, thus giving it enough spin to eject the captured electron.

The angular momentum of the neutrino puts it in the class of a Fermion, but the issue of whether it is able to occupy the same quantum orbital as some other species is somewhat moot since it hardly interacts with matter at all.  More likely, it contributes to the odd integer ħ/2 spin of the neutron.  The neutrino appears to travel at the speed of light, or very close to it, regardless of whether it is an electron, ì, or tau neutrino (each of which have extremely different energies).  Thus, it would be hard to justify that the neutrino has a mass, because the velocity of each particle would depend its kinetic energy.  

In other words, the most likely scenario is that the neutrino is an electromagnetic disturbance with ħ/2 spin.  This EM disturbance is carried by the Dipole Sea, and it only interacts with the central electron-positron pair, or other half integer spin particles.  The angular momentum of the central electron-positron pair is released by neutron decay, which loses an electron with a variable amount of kinetic energy, plus the neutrino, which is an odd type of ħ/2 photon.  The nuclear orbitals are in ħ multiples because the ã rays are spin ħ.  This indicates that drops in energy level in the nucleus are between orbitals of ħ multiples.  But, the central electron-positron orbiting pair was forced into a ħ/2 spin because the ħ/2 spin of the proton was neutralized when the extra electron was captured. Thus, the reactive magnetic field of Lenz’s law gave an inductive kickback when the electron neutralized the net ħ/2 spin of the target proton.  The neutrino type of spin is formed in the particle when spin conservation requires it.  Likewise, when a particle decays which has that type of spin internal to the particle, it will release a neutrino type of electromagnetic field.  The typical photon has an ħ momentum, and is formed from atomic orbitals or other ħ phenomenon such as pair annihilation.  Thus, we will see the neutrino emitted upon decay of many subatomic particles.  In each case, the conservation of spin (as enforced by Lenz’s Law), produces the orbiting structure that holds the ħ/2 spin, or that structure decays and releases the EM field of that pattern into the Dipole Sea to be carried through space until it finds a place which can absorb that particular quantum of energy.  As it turns out, the small cross section of capture probably relates to how hard it is to hit a neutron in its center, and at the proper phase to resonate with the orbiting central electron-positron.

 

Particle Physics.
Quark Theory.
Neutron Structure.
Neutron Structure.
Neutrinos.
Subatomic Structure.